Anti-Boat Overload

While many people are concerned about road accidents, boat accidents are less taken note of. Most cases of boat accident occur due to overloading. If ways to stop overloading can be implemented, these accidents would greatly decrease. One of the most common way is by having police patrols and enforcement. However, this method is prone to corruption.

Background research

A technique that incorporates the elevator concept using load sensor and batching controller to set maximum capacity is in use in the United States (Nooral,2015). This load sensor and batching controller are installed at entry points of the vessel. An electric circuit is installed slightly above the plimsol line (Rahman,2012) and terminals acting as switch placed close but not in contact. If the vessel is overloaded, the circuit is completed and the engine does not start.

Research question

What is the effect of increasing weight of boat on depth its immersed and distance of separation of contact switch?

Statement of the problem

Overloading of boats and water transport vessels is the major cause of boat accidents. The use of police officers to stop this practice has proven futile. The loss of lives due to overloading can come to an end if a device that stops the boat from moving when overloaded is put on all boats.

Statement of originality

I came up with this idea after a boat accident which killed many people due to overloading.

Justification

Relevance

Most boat accidents occur due to overloading. Police inspection and education of boat operators has not been fruitful.

Significance

It is necessary to develop a device which automatically shuts the engine when the boat is overloaded.

 Hypothesis

Increasing weight on boat does not increase the level of sinking.

Increasing weight of boat does not reduce distance of contact switch.

Objectives

To determine the effect of increasing weight of boat on the depth it sinks in water.

To determine the effect of increasing weight of boat on the distance between the contacts.

  Limitations and assumptions

  Limitations

Turbulence reduces efficiency of the device.

Assumptions

Density and temperature have no effect on working of the device.

 Precautions

Balloon can easily be destroyed by sharp objects.

Literature   review

Overloading of boats and water transport vessels is the major cause of boat and ferry accidents. The use of police officers to stop this practice has proven futile. The loss of lives due to overloading can come to an end if a device that stops the boat from moving when overloaded is put on all boats.

A technique that incorporates the elevator concept using load sensor and batching controller to set maximum capacity is in use in the United States (Nooral,2015). This load sensor and batching controller are installed at entry points of the vessel. An electric circuit is installed slightly above the plimsol line (Rahman,2012) and terminals acting as switch placed close but not in contact. If the vessel is overloaded, the circuit is completed and the engine does not start.

An innovation technology to reduce the overload problem can be considered using the elevator concept operation (Rahman,2012). The elevator concept is eligible to detect the overload people or goods when entering the elevator box using a sensor. If the overload problem occurs, the sound alarm of elevator will active and the door cannot be closed until the burden was reduced. Once the burden has been removed, the sound alarm will stop and the elevator door will close respectively. The elevator continues the operation smoothly.

Up thrust force is an upward force acting on a body suspended in a liquid. A body when partially or fully immersed in a liquid appears lighter due to upthrust force that is equivalent to the apparent loss in weight.

Upthrust force =  Weight in air- Weight in a liquid

 

Archimedes’   principle states that when a body is partially or totally immersed in a fluid, it experiences an upthrust force equal to the weight of the fluid displaced. The law of floatation states that a  floating object displaces its own weight of the fluid in which it floats.

Relative density= weight of solid /

Upthrust in water

Methodology

Requirements

A toy boat of dimensions 35cm x 20cm x 15cm, Four 1.5v dry cells,4 cell holders, a balloon,1m of copper connecting wire of gauge 28,10 litres of water in a trough, ten 250g glass blocks of dimensions 10cmx6cmx2cm. ,cello tape, glue, two 3v D.C electric motors each with a fan attached, 1.5v electric motor with a pointer, aluminium foil of dimensions  20 cm x 15cm, A switch, A plastic cylinder of diameter 7cm and height  10cm, a metre rule, electronic balance.

PROCEDURE
  1. a) Connect electric circuit as shown in figure 3.1. Place the cells inside the toy boat.
  2. b) Using cello tape, attach the 3V motors with fan on the rear sides of boat 2cm from the base and 4cm from the end side. Inflate the balloon so that its diameter is 6.8cm. Cut the aluminium foil into two equal halves and connect it to one end of the contact switch.
  3. c) Attach the aluminium foil to the balloon using glue. Join the other piece of aluminium foil to the contact switch and fix at the top of the cylinder using a thread. Fix the cylinder on the back end of the boat using cello tape.
  4. d) Measure the weight of boat and weight of a glass block. Fill the trough with water, place the boat on the water, note the depth it sinks, distance of the contact switches and record in table 3.1 and 3.2 respectively.
  5. e) Complete the switch, add a glass block, note the depth it sinks and the distance of separation of the contacts.
  6. f) Add more glass blocks as shown in table 3.1 and 3.2 below and complete the tables.
Variables

Increasing weight of boat increases depth, it sinks

Increasing weight of boat reduces distance of separation of the contact switch.

Electric current is kept constant.

Volume and weight of balloon remains constant.

 OBSERVATIONS

Increasing weight of the boat increases depth it’s submerged. Increasing weight of boat reduces the distance of separation of the contact switch. Electric current is kept constant.

Volume and weight of balloon remains constant.

RESULTS

Table 3.1

Weight(N) 9 12 15 18 21
Depth(m) 0.01 0.015 0.02 0.026 0.04

 

Table 3.2

Weight(N) 9 12 15 18 21
Distance(m) 0.02 0.015 0.01 0.00 0.00
DISCUSSION OF RESULTS

Increasing weight of the boat increases depth it’s submerged. Increasing weight of boat reduces the distance of separation of the contact switch. Electric current is kept constant.

Volume and weight of balloon remains constant.

RESULTS ANALYSIS                                      

A graph of weight against depth is a straight line passing through the origin. Increasing weight of the boat increases depth. Electric current is kept constant. Volume and weight of balloon remains constant.

A graph of distance of separation of the contact switch against weight of boat is a straight line. Increasing weight of boat reduces distance of separation of the contacts. Electric current is kept constant. Volume and weight of balloon remains constant.

Increasing weight of the boat increases depth it sinks. Increasing weight of boat reduces the distance of separation of the contact switch. A graph of weight against depth is a straight line passing through the origin. Increasing weight of the boat increases depth. A graph of distance of separation of the contact switch against weight of boat is a straight line. Increasing weight of boat reduces distance of separation of the contacts.

Electric current is kept constant. Volume and weight of balloon remains constant.

CONCLUSION

Increasing weight of the boat increases depth it sinks. Increasing weight of boat reduces the distance of separation of the contact switch. Overloading of boats and water transport vessels is the major cause of boat accidents. The use of police officers to stop this practice has proven futile. The loss of lives due to overloading can come to an end if a device that stops the boat from moving when overloaded is put on all boats. It’s thus possible to reduce accidents of boats due to overloading by use of this machine.

RECOMMENDATIONS

Further research on the effects of change in density and temperature of water on the working of this system to be done

References

Rahman B.(2010),Shipping safety analytics and oncepts.DOI.10.18265376T.html.Retrieved

From https://www.boat-ed.com

Nooral Z.(1999),Introduction to marine safety practices.DOI.10.129976328.html.Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net

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