PAINLESS INJECTIONS

Pain is an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage. It can lead to injection anxiety or phobia. There is no doubt that injections are painful. This makes many patients fear them. It takes 11 seconds on average for a qualified nurse to administer an injection. If a machine can be used, it will take a much shorter duration. The human mind takes 0.2 seconds to interpret pain. If injections can occur within this duration, the patient will not feel the pain hence making injections painless.

Abstract

The aim of this project is to reduce pain during injections. During research, the amount of electric current was varied and the time taken to make an injection noted. It was observed that increasing electric current reduces time taken for an injection. In the second research, the amount of medicine injected was varied and the time taken noted. It was observed that increasing the amount increases the time taken for an injection. The amount of current was kept constant. The human brain takes 0.2s to detect pain. It is thus possible to completely eliminate pain during injections if injection time is reduced to less than 0.2 seconds.

Background Research

Skin tapping technique (Dr. Abeer 1998) reduces pain during injections. This is because tapping while giving injection relaxes the muscle hence sensory nerves that carry pain to the brain. Mixing injection medicine with anaesthetic solutions (Dr. Prabu,2014) significantly lessens pain during injections. On average, it takes a nurse 11 seconds (Dr.Haneem,1999) to administer an injection. Injections mainly are targeted at muscles. This is due to more blood and blood vessels in these areas. However, the nerves are also concentrated in these parts of the body. Pain is calculated using the formula: – number of nerves damaged x time. The units of pain are lesions(l). The number of nerves is determined by estimating the number of blood vessels per cubic centimeter in a given tissue.

 Research Question

Can the duration of injection be reduced hence greatly reduce the pain experienced during injections?

 Statement of the problem

It’s no doubt that injections are painful. Injections are one of the major areas of treatment.  There are some diseases with no oral medication or the most suitable medication available is injection. In some cases, the number of injections is high which further increases the pain a patient has to endure. Since pain increases with time, it’s possible to reduce and finally completely eliminate pain experienced during injections by greatly reducing the duration of an injection.

Originality

I came up with this project after the doctor recommended that I receive 5 injections in a single day. I felt so much pain that I could not bear.

 Relevance and significance

 Relevance

Injection anxiety and injection phobia can lead to drug abuse. Reducing the duration of injection reduces the pain of injection.

 Significance

This project is to make a machine that administer an injection within a very short duration hence reduce or eliminate the pain.

 Hypothesis

Increasing electric current does not reduce injection time.

Increasing electric current through motors reduces duration of injection.

Objectives

To determine the amount of current which gives the shortest time of injection.

To determine the amount of medicine which takes the shortest time for injection.

Limitations and Assumptions 

It was not possible to attain injection duration of 0.2 seconds or less.

precautions

Be careful when handling the needle.

 Literature Review

Pain is an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage. Pain experienced during injections can lead to injection anxiety or injection phobia hence drug abuse. The process of putting an injection syringe into the body is known as insertion. The process of releasing the medicine into the body is known as deposition while the process of removing the syringe from the body is known as exsertion. All these processes are associated with pain. The human brain takes 0.2s to interpret pain. The longer an unpleasant stimulus takes, the more the pain experienced.

Skin tapping technique (Dr. Abeer 1998) reduces pain during injections. This is because tapping while giving injection relaxes the muscle hence sensory nerves that carry pain to the brain. Mixing injection medicine with anaesthetic solutions (Dr. Prabu,2014) significantly lessens pain during injections. On average,it takes a nurse 11 seconds (Dr.Haneem,1999) to administer an injection. Injections mainly are targeted at muscles. This is due to more blood and blood vessels in these areas. However, the nerves are also concentrated in these parts of the body. Pain is calculated using the formula: – number of nerves damaged x time. The units of pain are lesions(l). The number of nerves is determined by estimating the number of blood vessels per cubic centimeter in a given tissue.

When a current-carrying conductor is placed in a magnetic Weld, it experiences a force. Experiment shows that the magnitude of the force depends directly on the current in the wire, and the strength of the magnetic Weld, and that the force is greatest when the magnetic Weld is perpendicular to the conductor.

Effective local anesthesia is the single most important pillar upon which modern dentistry stands. Injections of local anaesthesia are one of the effective methods to reduce pain.  But injection of local anaesthetic itself is a great source of patient fear.

In order to overcome the fear of injections many newer technologies have been developed. For example, Computer controlled local anaesthesia drug delivery. Pain caused by some therapeutic and nursing procedures has been a major concern of health care providers. Pain resulting from IM injection should not be underestimated, because in the light of fact that a painful injection might affect serious apprehension of injection, which may lead a patient to postpone looking medical help as well as, it can harm the nurse-patient relationship. Decreasing patients’ pain is critical for all nurses in the light of numerous reasons. Administration of medications is a responsibility of the professional nurse. Intramuscular (IM) injections are a widespread and painful part of routine health care.  Moreover, injection pain is a common complaint of patients especially chronic patients who are experiencing repeated injection that let them escape, sometimes faint, to keep away from visiting the physician, or even refuse essential treatments. Pain is the most common reason for self deferral from injections by the inpatient and outpatient clients in the hospital. Providing pain relief is considered a most basic human right, so it is the responsibility of the nurse to use most effective approach to pain control. However, good injection techniques can make the experience relatively painless for the patient. Over the years, clinicians have tried to explore various methods to reduce pain, including the pain of injections. Nurses play a greater role in minimizing the pain and discomfort during any invasive procedure. Nurses have the responsibility to educate patients related to various aspects and keep themselves updated.

 Methodology

 Requirements

A syringe, a cutting blade,5 metres long cotton thread, A carton box of dimensions 15cmx10mx10cm,6 three volts d.c electric motors,10m connecting wire of diameter 0.14mm, a12v battery. A stop watch, a wooden splint, glue,30cm square aluminum foil, an ammeter, a switch, rheostat.

 Procedure

 Make a hole of diameter 0.5cm on the base. Attach 4 strips of box each 4cm x2cm inside the box on each side.

Fix 2 motors on each side of the strips.

Make 2 holes on the barrel and two holes on the plunger. Cut 4 pieces of thread 30cm each and tie through the holes. Tie the threads from the barrel through the base and tie on one of the motors. Repeat for the other motors. Connect the circuit as shown in fig. 3.1

Fill the syringe with 5ml of air, put in the box, connect the threads and wires as shown in figure 3.1

Complete the switch and note the time taken to inject.

Increase the current in steps as shown in table noting time taken for injection. Complete table 3.1

Put 2ml of air in a syringe, connect to the system, complete the circuit and note the time taken to inject. Repeat the procedure using 4ml,6ml and 8ml. Note the time taken in each case. Complete table 3.2

Observations

Increasing electric current reduces duration of injections with volume of liquid in syringe being constant. Increasing volume of liquid in syringe increases duration of injection with electric current being kept constant.

Variables

Increasing electric current reduces duration of injection.

Increasing volume of liquid in barrel increases duration of injection

Table 3.1

Current (A)     0.2        0.4        0.6      0.8        1.0
Time (s)           5           3          2          1          0.5

Table 3.2

Volume (ml)               2           4            6          8        10
Time(s).                       0.5       0.75     1.0     1.25     1.5

 Data Analysis

Increasing electric current reduces the duration of injections. A current of one ampere gives the shortest duration.

Increasing volume in the syringe increases duration of injection when electric current is kept constant.

See also:  Pencil Resistor

Conclusion

Pain during injections can be reduced by reducing the duration of injections. On average, it takes 11 seconds. The human brain takes 0.2s to detect pain. It is thus possible to completely eliminate pain during injections if injection time is reduced to less than 0.2 seconds. Pain is an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage. Since pain increases with time, it’s possible to reduce and finally completely eliminate pain experienced during injections by greatly reducing the duration of an injection.

Recommendations

To further reduce the duration of injections, electric current of over 1A should be used.

Replace the threads with gears.

References

Abeer C.(2014),Pain anatomy during injections.DOI:10.76278365.html.Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net

Haneem K.(2009),Introduction to medical injections.DOI:10.2198989.html.Retrieved from https://www.bmcpublichealth.biomedical.com

Prabu V.(2012),Development of pain ant-fusion systems.html.DOI.10.1975627.Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net

1 COMMENT

  1. smthing interesting however painful injection is, i prefer it on drugs due to some of them being bitter n some causing nausea.

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